Organizational Behavior 8e by McShane, Von Glinow

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Organizational Behavior 8e by McShane, Von Glinow is the 8th edition of the Organizational Behavior: Emerging Knowledge. Global Reality textbook authored by Steven L. McShane, Curtin University (Australia) and University of Victoria (Canada), and Mary Ann Von Glinow, Florida International University, and published by McGraw-Hill Education, New York, NY in 2018.

  • Ability. The natural aptitudes and learned capabilities required to successfully complete a task.
  • Achievement-nurturing orientation. Cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture emphasize competitive versus cooperative relations with other people.
  • Action research. A problem-focused change process that combines action orientation (changing attitudes and behavior) and research orientation (testing theory through data collection and analysis).
  • Adaptive culture. An organizational culture in which employees are receptive to change, including the ongoing alignment of the organization to its environment and continuous improvement of internal processes.
  • Affective organizational commitment. An individual's emotional attachment to, involvement in, and identification with an organization.
  • Agreeableness. A personality dimension describing people who are trusting, helpful, good-natured, considerate, tolerant, selfless, generous, and flexible.
  • Anchoring and adjustment heuristic. A natural tendency for people to be influenced by an initial anchor point such that they do not sufficiently move away from that point as new information is provided.
  • Appreciative inquiry. An organizational change strategy that directs the group's attention away from its own problems and focuses participants on the group's potential and positive elements.
  • Artifacts. The observable symbols and signs of an organization's culture.
  • Attitudes. The cluster of beliefs, assessed feelings, and behavioral intentions toward a person, object, or event (called an attitude object).
  • Attraction-selection-attrition theory (ASA theory). A theory that states that organizations have a natural tendency to attract, select, and retain people with values and personality characteristics that are consistent with the organization's character, resulting in a more homogeneous organization and a stronger culture.
  • Attribution process. The perceptual process of deciding whether an observed behavior or event is caused largely by internal or external factors.
  • Authentic leadership. The view that effective leaders need to be aware of, feel comfortable with, and act consistently with their values, personality, and self-concept.
  • Autonomy. The degree to which a job gives employees the freedom, independence, and discretion to schedule their work and determine the procedures used in completing it.
  • Availability heuristic. A natural tendency to assign higher probabilities to objects or events that are easier to recall from memory, even though ease of recall is also affected by nonprobability factors (e.g., emotional response, recent events).
  • Best alternative to a negotiated settlement (BATNA). The best outcome you might achieve through some other course of action if you abandon the current negotiation.
  • Bicultural audit. A process of diagnosing cultural relations between companies and determining the extent to which cultural clashes will likely occur.
  • Bounded rationality. The view that people are bounded in their decision-making capabilities, including access to limited information, limited information processing, and tendency toward satisficing rather than maximizing when making choices.
  • Brainstorming. A freewheeling, face-to-face meeting where team members aren't allowed to criticize but are encouraged to speak freely, generate as many ideas as possible, and build on the ideas of others.
  • Brainwriting. A variation of brainstorming whereby participants write (rather than speak about) and share their ideas.
  • Brooks's law. The principle that adding more people to a late software project only makes it later.
  • Categorical thinking. Organizing people and objects into preconceived categories that are stored in our long-term memory.
  • Centrality. A contingency of power pertaining to the degree and nature of interdependence between the power holder and others.
  • Centralization. The degree to which formal decision authority is held by a small group of people, typically those at the top of the organizational hierarchy.
  • Ceremonies. Planned displays of organizational culture, conducted specifically for the benefit of an audience.
  • Charisma. A personal characteristic or special "gift" that serves as a form o f interpersonal attraction and referent power over others.
  • Coalition. A group that attempts to influence people outside the group by pooling the resources and power of its members.
  • Cognitive dissonance. An emotional experience caused by a perception that our beliefs, feelings, and behavior are incongruent with one another.
  • Collectivism. A cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture emphasize duty to groups to which they belong and to group harmony.
  • Communication. The process by which information is transmitted and understood between two or more people.
  • Confirmation bias. The processing of screening out information that is contrary to our values and assumptions, and to more readily accept confirming information.
  • Conflict. The process in which one party perceives that its interests are being opposed or negatively affected by another party.
  • Conscientiousness. A personality dimension describing people who are organized, dependable, goal-focused, thorough, disciplined, methodical, and industrious.
  • Contact hypothesis. A theory stating that the more we interact with someone, the less prejudiced or perceptually biased we will be against that person.
  • Continuance commitment. An individual's calculative attachment to an organization.
  • Corporate social responsibility (CSR). Organizational activities intended to benefit society and the environment beyond the firm's immediate financial interests or legal obligations.
  • Counterproductive work behaviors (CWBs). Voluntary behaviors that have the potential to directly or indirectly harm the organization.
  • Countervailing power. The capacity of a person, team, or organization to keep a more powerful person or group in the exchange relationship.
  • Creativity. The development of original ideas that make a socially recognized contribution.
  • Decision making. The conscious process of making choices among alternatives with the intention of moving toward some desired state of affairs.
  • Deep-level diversity. Differences in the psychological characteristics of employees, including personalities, beliefs, values, and attitudes.
  • Design thinking. A human-centered, solution-focused creative process that applies both intuition and analytical thinking to clarify problems and generate innovative solutions.
  • Distributive justice. Perceived fairness in the individual's ratio of outcomes to contributions relative to a comparison of other's ratio of outcomes to contributions.
  • Divergent thinking. Reframing a problem in a unique way and generating different approaches to the issue.
  • Divisional structure. An organizational structure in which employees are organized around geographic areas, outputs (products or services), or clients.
  • Drives. Hardwired characteristics of the brain that correct deficiencies or maintain an internal equilibrium by producing emotions to energize individuals.
  • Electronic brainstorming. A form of brainstorming that relies on networked computers for submitting and sharing creative ideas.
  • Emotional contagion. The nonconscious process of "catching" or sharing another person's emotions by mimicking that person's facial expressions and other nonverbal behavior.
  • Emotional dissonance. The psychological tension experienced when the emotions people are required to display are quite different from the emotions they actually experience at that moment.
  • Emotional intelligence (EI). A set of abilities to perceive and express emotion, assimilate emotion in thought, understand and reason with emotion, and regulate emotion in oneself and others.
  • Emotional labor. The effort, planning, and control needed to express organizationally desired emotions during interpersonal transactions.
  • Emotions. Physiological, behavioral, and psychological episodes experienced toward an object, person, or event that create a state of readiness.
  • Empathy. A person's understanding of and sensitivity to the feelings, thoughts, and situations of others.
  • Employee engagement. Individual emotional and cognitive motivation, particularly a focused, intense, persistent, and purposive effort toward work-related goals.
  • Employee involvement. The degree to which employees influence how their work is organized and carried out.
  • Employee stock ownership plans (ESOPs). A reward system that encourages employees to buy company stock.
  • Empowerment. A psychological concept in which people experience more self-determination, meaning, competence, and impact regarding their role in the organization.
  • Equity theory. A theory explaining how people develop perceptions of fairness in the distribution and exchange of resources.
  • Escalation of commitment. The tendency to repeat an apparently bad decision or allocate more resources to a failing course of action.
  • Ethics. The study of moral principles or values that determine whether actions are right or wrong and outcomes are good or bad.
  • Evaluation apprehension. A decision-making problem that occurs when individuals are reluctant to mention ideas that seem silly because they believe (often correctly) that other team members are silently evaluating them.
  • Evidence-based management. The practice of making decisions and taking actions based on research evidence.
  • Exit-voice-loyalty-neglect model (EVLN model). The four ways, as indicated in the name, that employees respond to job dissatisfaction.
  • Expectancy theory. A motivation theory based on the idea that work effort is directed toward behaviors that people believe will lead to desired outcomes.
  • Extraversion. A personality dimension describing people who are outgoing, talkative, sociable, and assertive.
  • False-consensus effect. A perceptual error in which we overestimate the extent to which others have beliefs and characteristics similar to our own.
  • Fiedler's contingency model. A leadership model stating that leader effectiveness depends on whether the person's natural leadership style is appropriately matched to the situation (the level of situational control).
  • Five-factor (Big Five) model (FFM). The five broad dimensions representing most personality traits: conscientiousness, emotional stability, openness to experience, agreeableness, and extraversion.
  • Force field analysis. Kurt Lewin's model of systemwide change that helps change agents diagnose the forces that drive and restrain proposed organizational change.
  • Formalization. The degree to which organizations standardize behavior through rules, procedures, formal training, and related mechanisms.
  • Four-drive theory. A motivation theory based on the innate drives to acquire, bond, learn, and defend that incorporates both emotions and rationality.
  • Functional structure. An organizational structure in which employees are organized around specific knowledge or other resources.
  • Fundamental attribution error. The tendency to see the person rather than the situation as the main cause of that person's behavior.
  • Gainsharing plan. A team-based reward that calculates bonuses from the work unit's cost savings and productivity improvement.
  • General adaptation syndrome. A model of the stress experience, consisting of three stages: alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.
  • Global mindset. An individual's ability to perceive, appreciate, and empathize with people from other cultures, and to process complex cross-cultural information.
  • Globalization. Economic, social, and cultural connectivity with people in other parts of the world.
  • Goal setting. The process of motivating employees and clarifying their role perceptions by establishing performance objectives.
  • Grapevine. An unstructured and informal communication network founded on social relationships rather than organizational charts or job descriptions.
  • Halo effect. A perceptual error whereby our general impression of a person, usually based on one prominent characteristic, colors our perception of other characteristics of that person.
  • High-performance work practices (HPWPs). A perspective that holds that effective organizations incorporate several workplace practices that leverage the potential of human capital.
  • Implicit favorite. A preferred alternative that the decision maker uses repeatedly as a comparison with other choices.
  • Implicit leadership theory. A theory stating that people evaluate a leader's effectiveness in terms of how well that person fits preconceived beliefs about the features and behaviors of effective leaders (leadership prototypes) and that people tend to inflate the influence of leaders on organizational events.
  • Impression management. Actively shaping through self-presentation and other means the perceptions and attitudes that others have of us.
  • Individualism. A cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture emphasize independence and personal uniqueness.
  • Influence. Any behavior that attempts to alter someone's attitudes or behavior.
  • Information overload. A condition in which the volume of information received exceeds the person's capacity to process it.
  • Inoculation effect. A persuasive communication strategy of warning listeners that others will try to influence them in the future and that they should be wary of the opponent's arguments.
  • Intellectual capital. A company's stock of knowledge, including human capital, structural capital, and relationship capital.
  • Intuition. The ability to know when a problem or opportunity exists and to select the best course of action without conscious reasoning.
  • Job characteristics model. A job design model that relates the motivational properties of jobs to specific personal and organizational consequences of those properties.
  • Job design. The process of assigning tasks to a job, including the interdependency of those tasks with other jobs.
  • Job enlargement. The practice of adding more tasks to an existing job.
  • Job enrichment. The practice of giving employees more responsibility for scheduling, coordinating, and planning their own work.
  • Job evaluation. Systematically rating the worth of jobs within an organization by measuring the required skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions.
  • Job satisfaction. A person's evaluation of his or her job and work context.
  • Job specialization. The result of a division of labor, in which work is subdivided into separate jobs assigned to different people.
  • Johari Window. A model of mutual understanding that encourages disclosure and feedback to increase our own open area and reduce the blind, hidden, and unknown areas.
  • Leadership. Influencing, motivating, and enabling others to contribute toward the effectiveness and success of the organizations of which they are members.
  • Leadership substitutes. A theory identifying conditions that either limit a leader's ability to influence subordinates or make a particular leadership style unnecessary.
  • Learning orientation. Beliefs and norms that support the acquisition, sharing, and use of knowledge as well as work conditions that nurture these learning processes.
  • Legitimate power. An agreement among organizational members that people in certain roles can request certain behaviors of others.
  • Lewin's force field analysis. Kurt Lewin's model of systemwide change that helps change agents diagnose the forces that drive and restrain proposed organizational change.
  • Locus of control. A person's general belief about the amount of control he or she has over personal life events.
  • Machiavellian values. The beliefs that deceit is a natural and acceptable way to influence others and that getting more than one deserves is acceptable.
  • Management by walking around (MBWA). A communication practice in which executives get out of their offices and learn from others in the organization through face-to-face dialogue.
  • Managerial leadership. A leadership perspective stating that effective leaders help employees improve their performance and well-being toward current objectives and practices.
  • Maslow's needs hierarchy theory. A motivation theory of needs arranged in a hierarchy, whereby people are motivated to fulfill a higher need as a lower one becomes gratified.
  • Matrix structure. An organizational structure that overlays two structures (such as a geographic divisional and a product structure) in order to leverage the benefits of both.
  • Mechanistic structure. An organizational structure with a narrow span of control and a high degree of formalization and centralization.
  • Media richness. A medium's data-carrying capacity -- that is, the volume and variety of information that can be transmitted during a specific time.
  • Mental imagery. The process of mentally practicing a task and visualizing its successful completion.
  • Mental models. Knowledge structures that we develop to describe, explain, and predict the world around us.
  • Mindfulness. A person's receptive and impartial attention to and awareness of the present situation as well as to one's own thoughts and emotions in that moment.
  • Moral intensity. The degree to which an issue demands the application of ethical principles.
  • Moral sensitivity. A person's ability to recognize the presence of an ethical issue and determine its relative importance.
  • Motivation. The forces within a person that affect his or her direction, intensity, and persistence of voluntary behavior; see also Employee engagement; Needs; Rewards.
  • Motivator-hygiene theory. Herzberg's theory stating that employees are primarily motivated by growth and esteem needs, not by lower-level needs.
  • Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI). An instrument designed to measure the elements of Jungian personality theory, particularly preferences regarding perceiving and judging information.
  • Need for achievement (nAch). A learned need in which people want to accomplish reasonably challenging goals and desire unambiguous feedback and recognition for their success.
  • Need for affiliation (nAff). A learned need in which people seek approval from others, conform to their wishes and expectations, and avoid conflict and confrontation.
  • Need for power (nPow). A learned need in which people want to control their environment, including people and material resources, to benefit either themselves (personalized power) or others (socialized power).
  • Needs. Goal-directed forces that people experience.
  • Negotiation. The process whereby two or more conflicting parties attempt to resolve their divergent goals by redefining the terms of their interdependence.
  • Network structure. An alliance of several organizations for the purpose of creating a product or serving a client.
  • Neuroticism. A personality dimension describing people who tend to be anxious, insecure, self-conscious, depressed, and temperamental, self-conscious, depressed, and temperamental.
  • Nominal group technique. A variation of brainwriting consisting of three stages in which participants (1) silently and independently document their ideas, (2) collectively describe these ideas to the other team members without critique, and then (3) silently and independently evaluate the ideas presented.
  • Norm of reciprocity. A felt obligation and social expectation of helping or otherwise giving something of value to someone who has already helped or given something of value to you.
  • Norms. The informal rules and shared expectations that groups establish to regulate the behavior of their members.
  • Open systems. A perspective that holds that organizations depend on the external environment for resources, affect that environment through their output, and consist of internal subsystems that transform inputs to outputs.
  • Openness to experience. A personality dimension describing people who are imaginative, creative, unconventional, curious, nonconforming, autonomous, and aesthetically perceptive in creative people.
  • Organic structure. An organizational structure with a wide span of control, little formalization, and decentralized decision making.
  • Organizational behavior (OB). The study of what people think, feel, and do in and around organizations.
  • Organizational behavior modification (OB Mod). A theory that explains employee behavior in terms of the antecedent conditions and consequences of that behavior.
  • Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). Various forms of cooperation and helpfulness to others that support the organization's social and psychological context.
  • Organizational culture. The values and assumptions shared within an organization.
  • Organizational effectiveness. A broad concept represented by several perspectives, including the organization's fit with the external environment, internal subsystems configuration for high performance, emphasis on organizational learning, and ability to satisfy the needs of key stakeholders.
  • Organizational learning. A perspective that holds that organizational effectiveness depends on the organization's capacity to acquire, share, use, and store valuable knowledge.
  • Organizational politics. Behaviors that others perceive as self-serving tactics at the expense of other people and possibly the organization.
  • Organizational socialization. The process by which individuals learn the values, expected
  • Organizational strategy. The way the organization positions itself in its environment in relation to its stakeholders, given the organization's resources, capabilities, and mission.
  • Organizational structure. The division of labor as well as the patterns of coordination, communication, workflow, and formal power that direct organizational activities.
  • Parallel learning structure. A highly participative social structure developed alongside the formal hierarchy and composed of people across organizational levels who apply the action research model to produce meaningful organizational change.
  • Path-goal leadership theory. A leadership theory stating that effective leaders choose the most appropriate leadership style(s), depending on the employee and situation, to influence employee expectations about desired results and their positive outcomes.
  • Perception. The process of receiving information about and making sense of the world around us.
  • Personality. The relatively enduring pattern of thoughts, emotions, and behaviors that characterize a person, along with the psychological processes behind those characteristics.
  • Persuasion. The use of facts, logical arguments, and emotional appeals to change another person's beliefs and attitudes, usually for the purpose of changing the person's behavior.
  • Positive organizational behavior. A perspective of organizational behavior that focuses on building positive qualities and traits within individuals or institutions as opposed to focusing on what is wrong with them.
  • Power. The capacity of a person, team, or organization to influence others; see also Influence of CEOs.
  • Power distance. A cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture accept unequal distribution of power in a society.
  • Primacy effect. A perceptual error in which we quickly form an opinion of people based on the first information we receive about them.
  • Procedural justice. Perceived fairness of the procedures used to decide the distribution of resources.
  • Process losses. Resources (including time and energy) expended toward team development and maintenance rather than the task.
  • Production blocking. A time constraint in team decision making due to the procedural requirement that only one person may speak at a time.
  • Profit-sharing plan. A reward system that pays bonuses to employees on the basis of the previous year's level of corporate profits.
  • Prospect theory effect. A natural tendency to feel more dissatisfaction from losing a particular amount than satisfaction from gaining an equal amount.
  • Psychological contract. The individual's beliefs about the terms and conditions of a reciprocal exchange agreement between that person and another party (typically an employer).
  • Psychological harassment. Repeated and hostile or unwanted conduct, verbal comments, actions, or gestures that affect an employee's dignity or psychological or physical integrity and that result in a harmful work environment for the employee.
  • Realistic job preview (RJP). A method of improving organizational socialization in which job applicants are given a balance of positive and negative information about the job and work context.
  • Reality shock. The stress that results when employees perceive discrepancies between their preemployment expectations and on-the-job reality.
  • Recency effect. A perceptual error in which the most recent information dominates our perception of others.
  • Referent power. The capacity to influence others on the basis of an identification with and respect for the power holder.
  • Refreezing. The latter part of the change process, in which systems and structures are introduced that reinforce and maintain the desired behaviors.
  • Relationship conflict. A type of conflict in which people focus on characteristics of other individuals, rather than on the issues, as the source of conflict.
  • Representativeness heuristic. A natural tendency to evaluate probabilities of events or objects by the degree to which they resemble (are representative of) other events or objects rather than on objective probability information.
  • Rituals. The programmed routines of daily organizational life that dramatize the organization's culture.
  • Role perceptions. The degree to which a person understands the job duties assigned to or expected of him or her.
  • Roles. A set of behaviors that people are expected to perform because they hold certain positions in a team and organization.
  • Satisficing. Selecting an alternative that is satisfactory or "good enough," rather than the alternative with the highest value (maximization).
  • Scenario planning. A systematic process of thinking about alternative futures and what the organization should do to anticipate and react to those environments.
  • Scientific management. The practice of systematically partitioning work into its smallest elements and standardizing tasks to achieve maximum efficiency.
  • Selective attention. The process of attending to some information received by our senses and ignoring other information.
  • Self-concept. An individual's self-beliefs and self-evaluations.
  • Self-directed teams (SDTs). Cross-functional work groups that are organized around work processes, complete an entire piece of work requiring several interdependent tasks, and have substantial autonomy over the execution of those tasks.
  • Self-efficacy. A person's belief that he or she has the ability, motivation, correct role perceptions, and favorable situation to complete a task successfully.
  • Self-enhancement. A person's inherent motivation to have a positive self-concept (and to have others perceive him or her favorably), such as being competent, attractive, lucky, ethical, and important.
  • Self-fulfilling prophecy. The perceptual process in which our expectations about another person cause that person to act more consistently with those expectations.
  • Self-leadership. Specific cognitive and behavioral strategies to achieve personal goals and standards through self-direction and self-motivation.
  • Self-reinforcement. Reinforcement that occurs when an employee has control over a reinforcer but doesn't "take" it until completing a self-set goal.
  • Self-serving bias. The tendency to attribute our favorable outcomes to internal factors and our failures to external factors.
  • Self-talk. The process of talking to ourselves about our own thoughts or actions.
  • Self-verification. A person's inherent motivation to confirm and maintain his or her existing self-concept.
  • Servant leadership. The view that leaders serve followers, rather than vice versa; leaders help employees fulfill their needs and are coaches, stewards, and facilitators of employee development.
  • Service profit chain model. A theory explaining how employees' job satisfaction influences company profitability indirectly through service quality, customer loyalty, and related factors.
  • Shared leadership. The view that leadership is a role, not a position assigned to one person; consequently, people within the team and organization lead each other.
  • Situational leadership theory (SLT). A commercially popular but poorly supported leadership model stating that effective leaders vary their style (telling, selling, participating, delegating) with the motivation and ability of followers.
  • Social capital. The knowledge and other resources available to people or social units (teams, organizations) from a durable network that connects them to others.
  • Social cognitive theory. A theory that explains how learning and motivation occur by observing and modeling others as well as by anticipating the consequences of our behavior.
  • Social identity theory. A theory stating that people define themselves by the groups to which they belong or have an emotional attachment.
  • Social loafing. The problem that occurs when people exert less effort (and usually perform at a lower level) when working in teams than when working alone.
  • Social networks. Social structures of individuals or social units that are connected to each other through one or more forms of interdependence.
  • Social presence. The extent to which a communication channel creates psychological closeness to others, awareness of their humanness, and appreciation of the interpersonal relationship.
  • Span of control. The number of people directly reporting to the next level above in the hierarchy.
  • Stakeholders. Individuals, groups, and other entities that affect, or are affected by, the organization's objectives and actions.
  • Stereotype threat. An individual's concern about confirming a negative stereotype about his or her group.
  • Stereotyping. The process of assigning traits to people based on their membership in a social category.
  • Stock options. A reward system that gives employees the right to purchase company stock at a future date at a predetermined price.
  • Strengths-based coaching. A positive organizational behavior approach to coaching and feedback that focuses on building and leveraging the employee's strengths rather than trying to correct his or her weaknesses.
  • Stress. An adaptive response to a situation that is perceived as challenging or threatening to the person's well-being.
  • Stressors. Any environmental conditions that places a physical or emotional demand on the person.
  • Structural hole. An area between two or more dense social network areas that lacks network ties.
  • Superordinate goals. Goals that the conflicting parties value and whose attainment requires the joint resources and effort of those parties.
  • Surface-level diversity. The observable demographic or physiological differences in people, such as their race, ethnicity, gender, age, and physical disabilities.
  • Synchronicity. The extent to which the channel requires or allows both sender and receiver to be actively involved in the conversation at the same time (synchronous) or at different times (asynchronous).
  • Task conflict. A type of conflict in which people focus their discussion around the issue while showing respect for people who have other points of view.
  • Task identity. The degree to which a job requires completion of a whole or an identifiable piece of work.
  • Task interdependence. The extent to which team members must share materials, information, or expertise in order to perform their jobs.
  • Task performance. The individual's voluntary goal-directed behaviors that contribute to organizational objectives.
  • Task significance. The degree to which a job has a substantial impact on the organization and/or larger society.
  • Team-based organizational structure. An organizational structure built around self-directed teams that complete an entire piece of work.
  • Team building. A process that consists of formal activities intended to improve the development and functioning of a work team.
  • Team cohesion. The degree of attraction people feel toward the team and their motivation to remain members.
  • Teams. Groups of two or more people who interact and influence each other, are mutually accountable for achieving common goals associated with organizational objectives, and perceive themselves as a social entity within an organization.
  • Telecommuting. An arrangement whereby, supported by information technology, employees work from home one or more work days per month rather than commute to the office.
  • Third-party conflict resolution. Any attempt by a relatively neutral person to help conflicting parties resolve their differences.
  • Transformational leadership. A leadership perspective that explains how leaders change teams or organizations by creating, communicating, and modeling a vision for the organization or work unit and inspiring employees to strive for that vision.
  • Trust. Positive expectations one person has toward another person in situations involving risk.
  • Uncertainty avoidance. A cross-cultural value describing the degree to which people in a culture tolerate ambiguity (low uncertainty avoidance) or feel threatened by ambiguity and uncertainty (high uncertainty avoidance).
  • Unfreezing. The first part of the change process, in which the change agent produces disequilibrium between the driving and restraining forces.
  • Upward appeal. A type of influence in which someone with higher authority or expertise is called on in reality or symbolically to support the influencer's position.
  • Values. Relatively stable, evaluative beliefs that guide a person's preferences for outcomes or courses of action in a variety of situations; see also Cultural values.
  • Virtual teams. Teams whose members operate across space, time, and organizational boundaries and are linked through information technologies to achieve organizational tasks.
  • Win-lose orientation. The belief that conflicting parties are drawing from a fixed pie, so the more one party receives, the less the other party will receive.
  • Win-win orientation. The belief that conflicting parties will find a mutually beneficial solution to their disagreement.
  • Work-life balance. The degree to which a person minimizes conflict between work and nonwork demands.